Japanese American Activist Timeline
Five Generations of Community Activism
1868: First contract laborers from Japan arrive in Hawai‘i; due to bad working conditions on sugar plantations, several commit suicide while others are described as “rebellious” by plantation owners.
1868 to 1920: In Hawai‘i, Japanese laborers take part in more than sixty work stoppages and strikes on sugar plantations involving 72,000 workers.
1850s to 1930s: Anti-Chinese racism expands into anti-Japanese racism and eventually racism against all Asian immigrants; among leaders of this racist movement are U.S. unions, including the Knights of Labor, Workingmen’s Party, and American Federation of Labor. This racism causes Japanese immigrant labor activists to form worker centers to fight for rights, forge alliances for interethnic unity, and incorporate worker demands into community struggles.
1888: In San Francisco, exiles from the Japanese People’s Rights Movement form the Patriotic League. In 1893, League members publish the first daily Japanese American newspaper, Soko Shimbun (San Francisco Daily News)(.
1889: In Hawai‘i, Katsu Goto, an ex-sugar worker, store keeper and interpreter, is lynched for refusing to testify falsely in courts on behalf of plantation owners.
1890: A shoemaking operation started by Tsunetaro Jo and Tadoyoshi Sekine is forced out of business by the Boot and Shoemakers’ White Labor League. In response, the two Issei activists organize the Nihonjin Kutsuko Domeikai (Japanese Shoemakers’ League).
1891: In Hawaii, Japanese immigrant worker Mioshi takes his case to the state’s Supreme Court, arguing that the contract labor system is a form of slavery.
1891: Ekiu Nishimura files a writ of habeus corpus against the U.S. commissioner of immigration for refusing her entry and detaining her at the port of San Francisco. In 1892, the U.S. Supreme Court rules against her, upholding the immigration commission’s decision to exclude her.
1892: The Nippon Shuho becomes the first Japanese newspaper in Hawai‘i. Former immigration official Bunichiro Onome starts it as a vehicle to criticize the U.S. Bureau of Immigration for its treatment of Japanese.
1894: U.S. district rules that an Issei named Saito cannot become a U.S. citizen because he is now a “free white person” as required by the 1790 Naturalization Act.
1894: Japanese immigrant Namyo Bessho, a U.S. Navy veteran of the Spanish American War and World War I, files for naturalized U.S. citizenship, beginning a three decade-long legal battle; he finally becomes a U.S. citizen through a measure signed by President Roosevelt in 1935 granting Asian veterans citizenship rights.
1890: In San Francisco, despite anti-Asian racism of U.S. unions, Japanese immigrant activists (Fusataro Takano, Tsunetaro Jo, Hannosuke Sawada, and others) form Friends of Labor for the purpose of establishing a union federation similar to AFL in Japan. When they return to Japan in 1897, they along with Sen Katayama organize the first trade union in Japan. Thus, according to historian Yuji Ichioka, the origins of Japan’s unions can be traced to Issei immigrant activism.
1896: In the Pacific Northwest, two hundred railroad workers strike against contractors for a wage increase.
1898: U.S. “annexes” Hawai‘i.
1898: The Shakaishugi Kenkyu Kai (Society for the Study of Socialism) is formed. Five of the original twelve members would play a prominent role among Issei socialists: Kiyoshi Kawakami, Sen Katayama, Isao Abe, Kiichi Kaneko, and Shusui Kotoku.
Early 1900s: Asian plantation workers in Hawai‘i form “blood unions” — separate unions based on ethnic groups
1900: 8,000 Asian plantation workers in Hawai‘i organize more than twenty strikes
1900: In Hawai‘i, the first group of Okinawans arrives to toil on plantations; at EWA Plantation they encounter prejudice from Japanese immigrants.
1900: In Hawai‘i, forty-three Japanese and Portuguese women field hands at the Kilauea Plantation strike for higher wages. The strike results in a wage increase. This is one of two 1900 strikes to involve interethnic cooperation.
1903: In Oxnard, California, some 2,000 Japanese and Mexican sugar beet workers go on strike and form the Sugar Beet and Farm Laborers Union of Oxnard with Kosaburo Baba as president, Heizo Otomo as vice president and J.M. Larraras (Lizarres) as secretary. They win their strike, but when they ask for admission into the American Federation of Labor (AFL), their request is turned down. AFL leader Samuel Gompers tells Larraras that the Mexicans can join but not the Japanese. Larraras strongly responds by writing to Gompers that the Mexicans and Japanese stood together and will not accept a charter based on race prejudice.
1903: Rafu Shimpo begins publishing in Los Angeles.
1904: In San Francisco, during the visit of Japanese socialist Sen Katayama, 38 Issei activists organize the Soko Nihonjin Shakaito (San Francisco Japanese Socialist Party).
1904: In San Francisco, Issei socialists organize an anti-war meeting against the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.
1904: In Hawai‘i, 1,400 of 2,400 Japanese laborers hold one-week strike the Oahu Sugar Co. and win due to their high level of organization.
1905: More than thirty Okinawans arrive in the U.S. but are sent by immigration agents to Mexico where they toil in coal mines in Coahuila. Kamado Ota speaks out against company’s mistreatment of laborers and is arrested but escapes and crosses into the U.S. at El Paso. In Los Angeles, in 1906, Ota becomes a leader of Doshikai (Comrades Society).
1906: Shakai Kakumeito (Social Revolutionary Party) founded in San Francisco Bay Area with 50 Japanese members. The group publishes a journal called Kakumei (Revolution). In 1907, the group writes an “open letter” threatening assassination of the Emperor of Japan, and the resulting furor in the community results in the disbanding of the group.
1906: In Hawai‘i, 1,700 Japanese workers strike at the Waipahu Plantation and win concessions.
1906: In San Francisco, the Board of Education passes a resolution to segregate Chinese, Japanese, and Korean children from the rest. Their decision escalates into an international crisis.
1907: Despite the AFL policy of banning Asian immigrant workers as member, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) in Rock Springs, Wyoming, take in more than 500 Japanese miners as members. AFL President Samuel Gompers orders the UMWA to expel the Japanese immigrant workers from their union due to the AFL policy banning Asian immigrants.
1907-1908: “Gentlemen’s Agreement” between governments of Japan and U.S. ban entry of Japanese laborers but allows Japanese women, who arrive as “picture brides.”
1908: Tetsugoro Takeuchi and other Japanese socialists form the Fresno Rodo Domei Kai (Labor League of Fresno) with about 2,000 members.
1908: In Fresno, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) – which, in contrast to the AFL, embraced Asian immigrant workers as members – actively aided the Labor League of Fresno in organizing 4,000 Japanese grape pickers.
1909: In Hawai‘i, more than 8,000 Japanese sugar workers go on strike; after three months, this strike is crushed by plantation owners.
1909: In Fresno, the Fresno Rodo Domei Kai holds a joint rally with the Fresno Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) local, which draws Mexican and Italian IWW speakers.
1910: In Hawai‘i, the Territorial Supreme Court rejects the appeal of four leaders (Yokichi Tasaka, Yasutaro Soga, Motoyuki Negoro and Fred Kinzaburo Makino) of the 1909 plantation strike for conspiracy to obstruct the operations of the sugar plantation, and they begin jail terms. They are pardoned by the governor four months later and receive a hero’s welcome from a crowd of one thousand upon release.
1912: In Hawai‘i, four hundred Okinawan workes go on strike in Maui.
1913: IWW establishes Local 283 in an Alaska Ketchikan cannery; among its members are one hundred Japanese immigrants.
1913: IWW organizes a strike of 2,800 hop pickers, including Japanese at the Durst Brothers Ranch in Wheatland in northern California.
1913-1914: In Colorado, 12,000 members of United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) go on strike; Japanese workers are both supporters of the strike and also among strike-breakers.
1914: In Los Angeles, Little Tokyo community leaders establish the society to provide counseling and referral services to young girls fleeing unsuccessful picture bride marriages or seeking refuge from houses of prostitution.
1917: In Tooele, Utah, 106 employees of a refinery struck against their contractor fore three months for firing Saburo Tanaka who had been an outspoken advocate for worker rights.
1919: Japanese activist Sen Katayama becomes a founding member of Communist Party, USA.
1919: In Roosevelt, Washington, Japanese immigrant labor leader Ryosho Yamane helps organize Local 1736, Brotherhood of Maintenance of-the-Way Employees, AFL.
1920: To respond to plantation owners “divide and conquer” ethnic strategy to control its multiethnic workforce, more than 6,000 Japanese laborers unite with 2,700 Filipino laborers for a six-month sugar plantation strike.
1920: In Hawai‘i, three thousand striking Japanese and Filipino workers and their families march through Honolulu carrying signs, “Can You Live on 77 cents Per Day?”
1920: In California, voters approve a ballot initiative to strengthen the anti-Asian immigrant Alien Land Law. In the next few years, similar laws modeled on the California act are adopted in Arizona, Washington, Texas, and Oregon.
1921: In Los Angeles, young Okinawan immigrants form the Reimeikai (New Dawn Club) to study philosophy, religion, science, art, and social issues.
1922: The U.S. Supreme Court rules on the Ozawa case, prohibiting Japanese immigrants from being naturalized U.S. citizens on the basis of race. This ban remains in effect until 1952.
1923: In Long Beach, several hundred people attending a rally of the Third International of International Communist Party area arrested. Among those arrested are nine Issei, including several of Okinawan descent. The U.S. government orders them to be deported to Japan as “undesirable aliens,” where they would likely be killed because of their activism. Due to community protests led by Yotoku Miyagi, they are allowed to voluntary depart the U.S. and some decide to go to the Soviet Union.
1924: Immigration Act of 1924 bans all immigration from Asian Pacific region and sets up preferences for others based on “national quotas.”
1925: The U.S. Supreme Court strips Toyota Hidemitsu of his U.S. citizenship granted in 1921 after his service in World War I.
1926: In Hawai‘i, Rev. Seikan Higa, a Methodist minister and Okinawan community leader, publishes Yoen Jiho newspaper, the first paper published for an Okinawan migrant audience espousing a pro-labor philosophy.
1930: In Los Angeles, several Japanese immigrant activists, including Karl Yoneda, are arrested in a hunger march.
1930: In Seattle, the first convention of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) opens.
1930: In the Imperial Valley in southern California, the Agricultural Workers Industrial Union of Trade Union Unity League sends ten organizers, including Tetsuji Horiuchi, to organize 7,000 Mexicans, 1,000 Japanese and several hundred Filipinos. Horiuchi is arrested and sent to Folsom Prison for more than two years on Criminal Syndicalism Act charges.
1931: In San Francisco, about 50 employees of the San Francisco Nichibei, one of the oldest Japanese language newspapers in the U.S., go on strike for two months for reinstatement of a union leader, rehiring of four senior editors, and back pay.
1932: In Hawai‘i, a group of Japanese on Kauai form a cooperative that starts its own pineapple cannery at Kauai Homestead near Kapoa. This company would later become Hawaiian Fruit Packers.
1933: In Central California, the Japanese Section of the Agricultural Workers Industrial Union conducts 20 strikes on farms where strawberry, raspberry, pea, peach, asparagus, grape, lettuce, and other crops are raised. These actions involve more than 5,000 Japanese and tens of thousands of Mexicans, Filipinos, and whites.
1934: In San Francisco, Karl Yoneda (under the name of Karl Hama) runs for the then 22nd Assembly seat in the Fillmore District, receiving 1,017 votes.
1934: The JACL adopts a resolution endorsing the deporation of “undesirable alien communists who are found guilty of subversive acts.”
1935: In Los Angeles, the California Japanese Agricultural Workers Union is organized by 800 immigrants, headed by Tokijiro Saisho, a socialist from Saga.
1936: In Venice in southern California, the California Japanese Agricultural Workers Union leads a successful strike with Mexican and Filipino celery workers for higher wages and union recognition.
1936: In Los Angeles, the AFL organizes thousands of Issei and Nisei into Local 20284 of the Produce Market Employees Union, Local 630 of the Teamsters, and Local 770 of the Retail Clerks Union. All had Nisei officials.
1936: In Seattle, 500 Japanese cannery workers help form the CIO Farm and Cannery Workers Union. Its vice president is George Taki.
1937: In Los Angeles, the Southern California Retail Produce Workers Union (SCRPWU), an all-Nisei organization is formed and in one week signs up 1,000 members.
1937: In Seattle, the Alaska Cannery Workers Union switches its affiliation to the CIO.
1937: Issei activist Jack Shirai, a New York restaurant worker, joins the Abrham Lincoln Battalion to fight against fascists in Spain and is killed.
1937: In Hawai‘i, Jack Kawano’s Honolulu Longshoremen’s Association joins the newly created International Longshoreman and Warehouseman’s Union (ILWU).
1937: On the West Coast, many Issei activists join thousands of Chinese immigrants on picket lines against shipping U.S. scrap iron to Japan.
1937: Okinawan immigrant activist Shinsei Paul Kochi publishes Imin No Aiwa (“An immigrant’s sorrow tale”) about his tortuous journey to the U.S. as an undocumented immigrant through Mexico. His book is translated by Ben Kobashigawa into English in 1978.
1938: In Monterey, Stockton, Terminal Island, and other areas, the CIO establishes cannery workers locals; about 1,000 Japanese men and women are union members, with Mary Imada and Karl Yoneda serving as CIO organizers.
Late 1930s: In San Francisco Bay Area, young Nisei activists, including Kazu Ikeda and her sisters Nori and Mary, join Young Communist League.
Late 1930s: In Oakland, young Nisei activists form Oakland Young Democratic Club. Similar groups of progressive young Nisei spring up in Los Angeles and other cities.
1930s-1940s: In New York City, Issei and Nisei activists form the Japanese American Committee for Democracy.
1940: In Hawai‘i, Japanese and Filipino longshore and plantation workers go on strike for 298 days.
1942: President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066.
1942: In San Francisco Bay Area, members of Oakland Young Democratic Club write a statement condemning government’s decision to mass imprison Japanese Americans as an act of fascism in a war for democracy and send it to Bay Area newspapers, including Japanese American publications; the statement is never published.
1942: In Portland, in order to challenge the curfew regulations against Japanese Americans in court, Minoru Yasui presents himself after curfew for arrest in a police station. In 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the curfew order.
1942-1945: More than 2,000 Japanese Latin Americans are kidnapped and imprisoned in U.S. Department of Justice camps in Crystal City, Kenedy, and Seagoville, Texas.
1942: Military police fire on protesters at Manzanar concentration camp, killing one young Japanese American.
1942: Two Issei (farmer Toshiro Kobata and fisherman Hirota Isomura) are shot to death by camp guards at the Lordsburg, New Mexico, enemy alien internment camp. The guards say the Issei were trying to escape; however, the two men upon their arrival were too ill to walk from the train station to the camp gate.
1942: University of Washington student Gordon Hirabayashi, with the support of American Friends Service Center, challenges constitutionality of U.S. government internment order and is sentenced to 90-day jail sentence for curfew violation; in 1943, U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules against his challenge.
1942: Fred Korematsu arrested in San Leandro, California for defying government’s mass imprisonment order; in 1944, U.S. Supreme Court upholds Korematsu’s conviction but does not rule on constitutionality of internment.
1942: In Poston concentration camp, an attack on a man widely perceived to be an informer results in the arrest of two popular inmates. This incident soon escalates into a mass strike.
1942: In Los Angeles, Mexican American high school student Ralph Lazo joins his Japanese American friends in Manzanar concentration camp for two-and-a-half-years. Thirty years later, he joins the community movement for redress and reparations for Japanese Americans.
1942: In Manzanar concentration camp, the arrest of Harry Ueno triggers a mass uprising.
1943: In Tule Lake concentration camp, 35 men who refuse to fill out the “loyalty questions: are arrested.
1943: In Heart Mountain concentration camp, 75 Japanese American truck drivers walk out following a fist fight between their Japanese foreman and a white employee. The strike last four days.
1943: U.S. government separates “disloyal” internees from others and sends them to Tule Lake concentration camp.
1943: In Tule Lake concentration camp, administration fires 43 coal miners involved in a labor dispute. An ensuing uprising caps a month of strife.
1943: In Tule Lake concentration camp, all 199 men in the stockade begin a hunger strike for one week demand release of all from the stockade.
1944: Newspaper editor James Omura of Rocky Shimpo writes an editorial, “Let’s Not Be Rash,” questioning JACL’s support for the government’s decision to draft Japanese Americans from concentration camps.
1944: Several hundred Japanese Americans become draft resisters in protest of the government’s violation of their constitutional rights; at Heart Mountain concentration camp, these resisters form the Congress of American Citizens and the Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee. Among these resisters are Mits Koshiyama, Frank Emi, Yosh Kuromiya, Kiyoshi Okamoto, and Paul Nakadate.
1944: Kiyoshi Okamoto and Isamu Horino of the Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee are “deported” to Tule Lake concentration camp.
1944: A federal Grand Jury issues indictments against 63 Heart Mountain draft resisters, and they are sentenced to jail terms. They would be granted a pardon in late 1947.
1944: In Tule Lake concentration camp, stockade inmates begin their second hunger strike lasting several weeks to protest injustices.
1944: Seven members of the Heart mountain Fair Play Committee are arrested – Robert Kiyoshi Okamoto, Isamu Sam Horino, Paul Takeo Nakadate, Frank Seishi Emi, Gentaro Kubota, Minoru Tamesa and Tsutomu Wakaye – along with journalist James Omura. Their trial over “unlawful conspraicy to counsel, aid and abet violators of the draft” leads to convictions of all but Omura.
1944: More than 5,500 inmates at Tule Lake concentration camp renounce U.S. citizenship and are subject to mass deportation at end of war; later with the help of attorney Wayne Collins, many of these so-called “renunciants” are able to regain U.S. citizenship.
1944: Mitsuye Endo’s case challenging the U.S. government’s decision to imprison Japanese Americans comes before the Supreme Court, which declares her detention as a “legal citizen” as invalid and orders her unconditional release. However, the Court does not rule on the constitutionality of the mass internment.
1946: In Hawaii, ILWU (International Longshore and Warehouse Workers Union) leads an industry-wide sugar industry strike of 28,000 Japanese, Filipino, Chinese, Puerto Rican, and Hawaiian workers, shutting down 33 of 34 plantations for 79 days.
1946: In Los Angeles, Okinawan activist Shinsei Paul Kochi organizes Okinawan Relief League and publishes the newsletter Kyeun News (Relief News).
Mid-1940s: In Los Angeles, Nisei activists, including Sakae Ishihara, form Nisei for (Henry) Wallace to support his campaign on the Progressive Party ticket for racial integration, redress, and civil rights. Among others who attended meetings of the group are Sue Kunitomi (Embrey) and Art Takei.
1948: In Los Angeles, Nisei activists Sakae Ishihara, Sue Kunitomi, and Art Takei form Nisei Progressives to focus on problems in the Japanese American community, to further the economic, political and social rights of Nisei, and “to pursue a program for peace, prosperity and freedom for all.” Members of Nisei Progressives are also in San Francisco, Chicago, and New York. The group publishes a newsletter, The Independent.
1949: Nisei Iva Ikuoko Toguri D’Aquino is unfairly convicted for treason during World War II as “Tokyo Rose” and sentenced to ten years in prison; although several women made “Tokyo Rose” broadcasts, she is the only one prosecuted. In 1977, culminating a long battle led by Japanese American activists, she is pardoned by President Ford in 1977.
1949: Nisei Dr. James Yamazaki is lead physician of the U.S. Atomic Bomb Medical Team assigned to Nagasaki to survey the effects of the bomb. After seeing the effects of radiation first-hand, he becomes active in the movement to ban nuclear weapons. In 2008, he received the Socially Responsible Medicine Award from Physicians for Social Responsibility of Los Angeles for his lifelong work on the effects of radiation on public health.
Late 1940s: In New York City, former Nisei members of the Communist Party USA, including Kazu Ikeda of Oakland, write a theoretical paper and send it to party leadership critiquing the leaders’ decision to expel its Japanese American members and support the mass imprisonment of Japanese Americans.
1950: The House Un-American Activities Committee goes to Hawaii. Jack Kawano and 38 others refuse to answer questions about Communist activity in the ILWU. The “Reluctant 39” are indicted in U.S. District Court. In 1951, Kawano testifies for five months before the committee in Washington, D.C.
1953: The Hawaii Seven – Charles Fujimoto, Eileen Kee Fujimoto, Dwight James Freedom, Jack D. Kimoto, Dr. John Reinecke, Koji Ariyoshi and Jack Hall – are convicted on Smith Act violations of conspiring to teach communism and related charges, largely on the basis of Jack Kawano’s HUAC testimony. The convictions are overturned five years later.
1957: The California State Board of Education votes for a new investigation of state textbooks due to Delano elementary school student Gene Nakagama’s refusal to attend school because he would have to read a story repeatedly containing the racial epithet “Jap.”
Early 1960s: In New York, Nisei activists Yuri and Bill Kochiyama are active in Harlem Parents Committee and send their children to the Harlem Freedom School.
1963: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama and her oldest son Billy are arrested for demonstrating for construction jobs for African Americans and Puerto Ricans.
1963: Nikkei activist Kiyoshi Kuromiya meets Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., and joins civil rights protests in South. He later becomes an antiwar activist.
1964: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama joins Malcolm X’s Organization for Afro American Unity.
1964: In New York, Yuri Kochiayam organizes a meeting between Malcolm X and the hibakusha (atomic bomb survivors) visiting from Japan.
1965: In Philadelphia, Kiyoshi Kuromiya speaks on gay rights at the Black Panther Party’s Revolutionary People’s Constitutional Convention.
1966: In Oakland, Black Panther Party is founded with solidarity from activist Richard Aoki, who later becomes a leader of Third World Liberation Front (TWLF) fighting for Ethnic Studies at UC Berkeley.
1968: Students at San Francisco State College launch a six-month strike for Ethnic Studies.
1968: Yuji Ichioka, an activist and founder of Asian American Studies, emphasizes the term “Asian American” as a political concept to replace the prevailing term “Oriental American.”
1968: George Kiriyama initiated, taught and wrote the course outline and teachers guide for America’s Intercultural Heritage, the first multicultural course in the state of California.
1968-1977: In San Francisco, Asian American activists organize in solidarity with tenants of International Hotel in Manilatown/Chinatown fighting eviction.
1969: In Los Angeles, Japanese American activists mobilize to support Dr. Thomas Noguchi, fired as Los Angles County coroner. Due to community support, he is reinstated.
1969: In Los Angeles, JACS (Japanese American Community Services) funds the JACS-Asian Involvement (JACS-AI) office and its “Serve the People” community outreach programs.
1969: In Los Angeles, Asian American activists publish Gidra newspaper, which evolves into the voice of the Asian American Movement.
1969: In San Francisco Bay Area, the Ad Hoc Japanese Americans for Peace, led by Nisei Raymond Okamura, Kathy Reyes, and Edison Uno, organize an Asian American contingent of over 300 to participate in a massive San Francisco anti-war peace march.
1969: In New York City, Nisei activists Kazu Iijima and Minn Matsuda found Asian Americans for Action.
1969: First annual Manzanar Pilgrimage.
1969: In Chicago, Shinya Ono joins Weatherman protest and is arrested and sentenced to five months in jail.
1969: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama takes oath of citizenship in organization Republic of New Africa.
1969-1970: In Los Angeles, Sansei activists form Yellow Brotherhood to help Asian American youth develop community consciousness in a social and political setting.
Late 1960s: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama takes up solidarity work regarding political prisoners.
Late 1960s: In Los Angeles, activists including Tak Yamamoto participate in a group called PRIDE (Personal Rights in Defense and Education) that is a forerunner of struggles for gay rights.
1970: In Los Angeles, media activists Duane Kubo, Robert Nakamura, Alan Ohashi, and Eddie Wong form Visual Communications in Little Tokyo.
1970: Two hundred Asian Americans participate in an “Asian Americans for Peace” march in Los Angeles Little Tokyo.
1970: At Long Beach State University, co-chairs Allan Nishio and Alan Nitake convene the first Southland Inter-Collegiate Conference of Asian American Studies.
1970: In San Francisco Bay Area, Nisei activists in JACL found the Bay Area Community Chapter of JACL. Nisei activists also form the Chicago Liberation chapter of JACL.
1970: Sansei activist Pat Sumi joins delegation of anti-war Americans to north Korea, north Vietnam and China.
1970: In San Francisco Bay Area, Nisei and Sansei activists organize solidarity for American Indian activists who occupy Alcatraz.
1970: In New York, Asian Americans for Action organizes actions in solidarity with activists in Japan who are opposing renewal of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty, which is linked to U.S. military aggressions in Asia and Japan’s new imperialistic ambitions.
1970: In Chicago, Japanese American activists from West and East coasts attend the National JACL Convention with demands for change.
1970: In San Francisco, Sansei activists in J-Town Collective organize solidarity events for farmers and activists in Japan protesting construction of the Narita International Airport.
1970: Asian American activists participate in Chicano Moratorium.
Early 1970s: In New York, Asian American performance artists create Yellow Project at Basement Workshop in Chinatown.
Early 1970s: In Stockton, young Asian American activists form Yellow Seed.
Early 1970s: Young Asian American activists travel to Delano to help build Agbayani Village for retired farmworkers.
Early 1970s: In Los Angeles, Nisei activists Sue Embrey, Paul Tsuneishi, and Phil Shigekuni form E.O. 9066 Inc. to move beyond JACL resolutions calling for redress and reparations for the wartime imprisonment of Japanese Americans.
Late 1970s: Asian American activists organize for a new trial for prisoner Chol Soo Lee who is in prison for a crime he did not commit.
1970-1971: In Los Angeles, Sansei activist Nick Nagatani and other veterans form Asian Movement for Military Outreach (AMMO) and publish the newsletter Flak.
1971: Marii Hasegawa of Philadelphia is elected national president of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF); under her leadership WILPF leads a peace delegation to north Vietnam.
1971: In Los Angeles, Asian Sisters is formed consisting of mainly Japanese American activists between the ages of 13 and 18.
1971: Asian Americans for Peace join with 2,000 other activists to hold “Peace Sunday at the Biltmore Bowl in down Los Angeles.
1971: In Los Angeles, Amerasia Bookstore opens in Little Tokyo.
1971: Committee of Atomic Bomb Survivors founded; leaders include Kanji Kuramoto and Kaz Suyeishi.
1971: In Vancouver, Canada, the anti-war Conference of Indochinese and North American Women is held; among those attending are activists Pat Sumi and Mike Nakayama.
1971: In Los Angeles, an anti-war teach-in is held at Senshin Buddhist Temple featuring speakers Kiku Uno, Candace Murata, Pat Sumi, Greg Fukuda, and Mike Nakayama.
1971: After a four-year grassroots campaign led by Nisei activists Raymond Okamura and Edison Uno, the U.C. Congress repeals Title II of the 1950 Internal Security Act. Title II had provided for detention camps for those defined by the Attorney General as subversive and ignored due process.
1972: In New York, Joanne Nobuko Miyamoto and Chris Iijima record their album of Asian American political music called A Grain of Sand.
1972: In Los Angeles, 150 Asian American high school students form the Van Troi Anti-Imperialist Youth Brigade and march in the Nisei Week Parade and set fire to a Japanese flag in support of national liberation struggles in the world.
1973: In San Francisco, the Committee Against Nihonmachi Eviction (CANE) forms with Sansei and Nisei activists and neighborhood residents opposing evictions and destruction of low-rent housing and small businesses by redevelopment and Japanese corporations.
1974: In Los Angeles, about one hundred demonstrators picket the groundbreaking of the New Otani Hotel in Little Tokyo, protesting the lack of low-cost housing promised by the Community Redevelopment Agency. The protest was organized by the Little Tokyo Anti-Eviction Task Force.
1974: In Los Angeles, Japanese American performance activists form Hiroshima as a jazz-fusion band.
1975: In San Francisco, nine CANE members commit civil disobedience at the Western Addition Redevelopment headquarters by chaining themselves together in the office of the agency’s director to protest destruction of low-cost housing in Nihonmachi.
1975: The San Fernando Valley JACL hosts a public forum on reparations for the World War II incarceration. The six-person panel is hosted by Paul Tsuneishi and includes Edwin C. Hiroto, Masamune Kojima, Edison Uno, Gail Chew Nishioka, and Bob Ronka.
1975: In San Francisco, Wendy Yoshimura is arrested with Patty Hearst relating to activities of the Symbionese Liberation Army. Yoshimura is convicted for illegal possession of weapons, and Asian American community activists protest her severe punishment.
1976: Activist Misuye Yamada’s book, Camp Notes and Other Poems, is published. She originally wrote this book during and after her imprisonment in World War II in Minidoka internment camp.
1976: In Los Angeles, the Little Tokyo People’s Right Organization (LTPRO) holds a march and rally in Little Tokyo to protest the eviction of Sun Hotel resident. LTPRO members later occupy the hotel to prevent demolition but are ousted by County marshalls.
1976: In New York, activist Michi Weglyn publishes her influential book Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America’s Concentration Camps.
1976-1981: George Kiriyama develops the Asian American Kit for elementary and secondary, the first and only primary sources for Japanese American, Chinese American, Korean American, Pilipino Americans and Pacific Islander (Samoa).
1977: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama joins other activists in takeover of Statue of Liberty to protest imprisonment of Puerto Rican freedom fighters.
1978: In Los Angeles, performance activist Nobuko Miyamoto founds Great Leap, Inc.
1978: In Salt Lake City, at the JACL biennial convention a resolution is adopted calling for redress in the form of individual payments of at least $25,000 to each person. In 1979, JACL leaders meet with Japanese American Congressmen who suggest that instead of seeking monetary reparations, the first priority should be creation of a Congressional commission to “establish an official determination of the injustice.”
1978: In California, Asian American student activists from several college campuses form APSU (Asian Pacific Islander Student Union) to fight for educational rights. Among early issues taken up are defense of affirmative action and support for student campaigns to gain Asian American Studies at their campuses.
1979: In Seattle, the National Council for Japanese American Redress is formed by people unhappy with the JACL decision to seek from Congress a study commission rather than direct compensation.
1979: In Los Angeles, jazz-fusion band Hiroshima issues its first album.
1979: In the San Francisco Bay Area, the Japanese American Fair Play Committee is formed to protest anti-Iranian actions with the advent of the hostage crisis in Iran.
1979: In Los Angeles, JACL National Committee for Redress and Manzanar Committee hold a “day of remembrance” focusing on the World War II ordeal of Japanese Americans in concentration camps.
1979: Asian American activists help form League for Revolutionary Struggle.
1979: In Washington, D.C., at the Third World Conference, a Lesbian and Gay Asian Collective is formed. At a march and rally, Michiyo Cornell speaks to the gathering on behalf of the collective.
Late 1970s: In Los Angeles, workers at New Otani Hotel in Little Tokyo attempt to unionize.
1970s-1980s: In Los Angeles, activists form Japanese Welfare Rights Organization in Little Tokyo with activist Shinsei Paul Kochi serving as its first president.
1980s: In Japan, Nikkei activist Ron Fujiyoshi challenges Japan’s alien registration laws, which discriminate against its Korean residents. He refuses to be fingerprinted under the law and goes to court more than thirty times challenging what he calls Japan’s racist and exclusionary policies targeting its Korean population.
1980s: In Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley, activist members of United Auto Workers union, including Sansei Mark Masaoka, organize a labor-community coalition against shutdown of General Motors plant.
1980s: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama promotes awareness of political prisoner Mumia Abu-Jamal.
1980s: George Kiriyama leads the formation of the Alliance of Asian Pacific American Administrators with the mission to give political clout to promotions long ignored in the LAUSD.
1980s: Asian American activists, including Nisei, join anti-nuclear movement across the U.S.
Early 1980s: Through research at the National Archives, Aiko Yoshinaga Herzig and Jack Herzig discover U.S. government documents from the early 1940s attesting to the loyalty of Japanese Americans before the government’s internment order. The research by the Herzigs is instrumental in the coram nobis cases that vacate convictions of Fred Korematsu, Minoru Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi.
1980: In Los Angeles, Robert Nakamura’s feature film Hito Hata: Raise the Banner is premiered in Little Tokyo.
1980: Sansei and Nisei activists found National Coalition for Redress and Reparations (NCRR).
1980: Rev. Dr. Seichi Michael Yasutake begins solidarity work with political prisoners, including activists in the Puerto Rican independence movement. Later he joins solidarity movements calling for removal of U.S. military bases in Okinawa and Vieques. To involve Asian Americans in global human rights issues, he founds Episcopal Asiamerica Ministries Advocates.
1980: In Los Angeles, at Horikawa Restaurant in Little Tokyo, workers organize against unfair working conditions with the support of LTPRO activists.
1980-1981: In Los Angeles, Sansei activists help organize a two-month strike at JFC, Nishimoto, and Mutual Tading Companies.
1980-1981: In Los Angeles, activists form Asian/Pacific Lesbians and Gays, with Tak Yamamoto serving as its first president. Other activists include Dean Goishi and Roy Kawasaki.
1981: In Los Angeles, the UCLA Nikkei Student Union (NSU) is formed By Ken Minami, Albert Saisho, and Kenji Saisho as an alternative to Asian fraternities and sororities on campus. The NSU founding vision emphasizes community service and cultural awareness.
1981: In Los Angeles, NCRR holds first “Day of Remembrance” in Little Tokyo.
1982: In Detroit, Vincent Chin is killed by an auto factory foremen angry at Japanese car imports that he believes are taking away jobs of U.S. workers. The killing sparks outrage, and Asian Americans in Detroit and throughout the nation organize committees demanding justice for Vincent Chin.
1983: A legal team led by Dale Minami and Peter Irons files a petition of error coram nobis on behalf of Fred Korematsu in the San Francisco federal district court. Identical petitions on behalf of Gordon Hirabayashi and Min Yasui are filed in Seattle and Portland, respectively.
1983: In Washington, D.C., NCJAR files a class-action suit against the government in federal district court seeking $24 billion in damages for the “unlawful” segregation, arrest, exclusion and imprisonment of Japanese Americans during World War II.
1984 to early 1990s: Young Asian American activists, including Evelyn Yoshimura, support two presidential campaigns of Jesse Jackson and join his Rainbow Coalition.
1984: In Long Beach, activists form the Gay Asian Rap Group (GARP).
1985: In Gardena, “Day of Remembrance” is sponsored by NCRR, JACL, and Little Tokyo People’s Rights Organization.
1985: In Monterey Park, Japanese Americans help form a multiethnic coalition to oppose proposed city ballot initiative to declare English as city’s official language.
1986: NCRR joins the Big Mountain Support Committee to fight against the eviction of indigenous people from their land in Arizona. NCRR member Aki Maehara travels to Big Mountain on a fact-finding trip.
1986: In Los Angeles, UCLA Nikkei Student Union holds a “Week of Remembrance” to educate fellow students about the World War II concentration camp experience of Japanese Americans. The week-long series of events evolves into the annual NSU Cultural Night.
1986-1989: In Los Angeles, thousands organize to support tenure at UCLA for Professor Don T. Nakanishi.
1987: In Los Angeles, Nikkei activist Warren Furutani is elected to the LAUSD Board of Education, becoming the first Japanese American member.
1987: About 120 NCRR Nisei and Sansei activists travel to Washington, D.C. to lobby for redress and reparations.
1987: In New York, Yuri Kochiyama and other activists organize against the wrongful conviction of Chinese immigrant David Wong.
1987: In Los Angeles, Asian American labor activists, including Art Takei of United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770, form Alliance for Asian Pacific Labor (AAPL) to encourage unions to organize Asian Pacific immigrant workers, to promote active involvement in unions by Asian Pacific members, and to create labor-community partnerships on critical issues affecting Asian Pacific Americans.
1988: Activism by Nisei and Sansei leads to signing by President Reagan of Civil Liberties Act of 1988.
1988: In New Jersey, Yu Kikumura is arrested on charges relating to terrorism. Yuri Kochiyama and others organize a support committee.
1988: NCRR leader Kathy Masaoka is part of a delegation of minority groups from the U.S. who go to Japan supporting the campaign of human rights activists there mobilizing Japan’s 1951 Alien Registration Act, which discriminates against its Korean residents.
1988: Gay Asian Rap Group incorporates as Gay Asian Pacific Support Network (GAPSN).
1990s to Today: Continuing organizing efforts by Campaign for Justice demanding redress for forced removal and imprisonment of Japanese Latin Americans during World War II who were eliminated by Congress from the 1988 redress and reparations act.
1990s: In Hawai‘i, Japanese American activists support campaigns of Native Hawaiians in their demand for sovereignty.
Early 1990s: In Los Angeles, Tony Osumi creates his “Feast of Resistance” teaching activity to promote understanding of Asian American history through food.
1990: NCRR joins with JACL and Japan Pacific Resource Network (JPRN) to host a delegation of minority groups from Japan. The group speaks to a community gathering at Centenary United Methodist Church.
1991: Throughout the U.S., Japanese Americans speak out against hate crime attacks of Arab Americans connected to the U.S. war against Iraq.
1991: At the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, young Asian American activists help draft the Principles of Environmental Justice.
1992: In Los Angeles, Guy Aoki founds Media Action Network for Asian Americans.
1992: In Los Angeles, activists of color, including Mo Nishida, organize the first “Little Tokyo to Manzanar Spiritual Unity and Prayer Run.”
1992: Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance formed within AFL-CIO.
1992: Following the L.A. Riots, Japanese American activists join with Korean immigrants and other people of color to protest injustices and promote interracial coalitions-building.
1993: In the eastern San Gabriel Valley, a two-day student protest at Claremont Colleges results in pledge by administrators to “aggressively” promote affirmative action programs, to develop an Asian American Studies program, and to increase hiring of faculty of color by 50% in next seven years.
1993: In Los Angeles, leaders of KIWA (then Korean Immigrant Worker Advocates but later Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance) create Summer Activist Training (SAT) to nurture young Asian American activists. A few summers later, KIWA invites other Asian American activists groups, including Nikkei for Civil Rights and Redress, to cosponsor the three-day activist training.
1993: Chris Iijima and Joanne Nobuko Miyamoto re-issue on CD format the album A Grain of Sand: Music for the Struggle of Asians in America.
1993: In Orange County, young Asian Americans are illegally stopped by police and photographed, and their photos are placed in an “Asian Mug Book” as potential criminals. Asian American activists protest and file lawsuits to stop the practice.
Mid-1990s: In Los Angeles, Japanese American activists mobilize community support for Latino immigrant workers connected to the Hotel Emloyees and Restaurant Employees Local 11 trying to unionize New Otani Hotel in Little Tokyo. The hotel is owned by the Kajima corporation of Japan, which in the 1970s partnered with the city redevelopment officials to destroy small businesses and low-cost housing. Also Kajima corporation kidnapped, enslaved, and murdered Chinese in its Hanaoka mines during the Pacific War. Thus, activists David Monkawa and Tony Osumi describe the community-labor campaign as dealing with a “three-headed monster”: against Kajima’s war crimes and in support of surviving Chinese laborers were brought a lawsuit against Kajima for redress and reparations; against Kajima’s evictions in Little Tokyo in the 1970s and in support of low-cost housing; and against Kajima-New Otani’s harassment of workers and in support of the immigrant workers’ union organizing campaign.
1994: In Los Angeles, Japanese American activists deliver an “open letter” to Emperor Akihito during his visit to the Los Angeles, calling for more social accountability by Japanese corporations in the U.S. They specifically criticize the New Otani and Kajima corporations’ harassment of Latino immigrant workers in their union organizing campaign.
1994: In Los Angeles, community muralists Darryl Mar and Tony Osumi create giant “Remember Your Roots” mural in Koreatown.
1995: In Los Angeles, young Asian American activists form ACTION! (Asian Pacific Islander Collective to Initiative Opportunities Now!). Leaders include Jason Nawa, Tracie Kato Kiriyama, Sunny Le, and Ryan Yokota.
1995: The publication Religious Socialism identifies Rev. Seichi Michael Yasutake and Noam Chomsky as the two “living Americans presently engaged in activity defining him as a radical who might be honored by the future generations of the American left.”
1996: In Los Angeles, human rights activist Takashi Niimi visits Little Tokyo to express solidarity to the union organizing campaign of Latino immigrant workers at New Otani Hotel and to Japanese American activists supporting them. Niimi is also providing solidarity to surviving Chinese laborers who were kidnapped and enslaved by Kajima corporation in Japan during the Pacific War and their campaign to gain redress and reparations from the corporation.
1996: Long-time activist Marii Hasegawa is the first Japanese American to receive the Niwano Peace Prize given by the Tokyo-based Niwano Peace Foundation. The award, which was initiated in 1983, recognizes prominent world peace activists who have devoted themselves to interreligious cooperation. Hasegawa is one of three Americans who have the award.
1996: Nisei artist Shinkichi Tajiri, who sculpted the “Friendship Knot” in Weller Court in Little Tokyo, formally asks Little Tokyo and city officials to remove the plaque accompanying his work honoring “war criminal” Morinosuke Kajima, who kidnapped nearly a thousand Chinese from their homeland, enslaved them in the Hanaoka mines run by his corporation, and massacred several hundred when they protested poor working conditions. Little Tokyo and city officials do not respond to Tajiri’s request.
1996: In Los Angeles, Kajima corporation drops out of bidding to construct the new pavilion of the Japanese American National Museum in Little Tokyo after Japanese American activists, immigrant workers at New Otani Hotel, union officials and community leaders raise strong opposition. This campaign includes a march through Little Tokyo by Japanese American activists, Latino immigrant workers, and union officials march who deliver a letter to museum officials opposing uses of Kajima for construction of the new building.
Mid-1990s: Captain Bruce Yamashita successfully challenges Marine Officer Training School’s history of racial discrimination against officer candidates.
1997: In Los Angeles, the firing of many long-time production employees as the Rafu Shimpo prompts activists to form a support committee to protest the firings and publish the Rafu Journal to promote community awareness.
1997: A/PLG changes its name to Asian/Pacific Gays and Friends (A/PGF).
1998: In Los Angeles, young Asian American activists, including Scott Kurashige, organize the “Serve the People” conference for the Asian American Left, coinciding the visit of veteran activists Yuri Kochiyama and Grace Lee Boggs for a UCLA conference on the legacy of the Asian American Movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
1998: In Washington, D.C., Asian American activists join the Jericho ’98 march demanding amnesty and freedom for all political prisoners.
1998: In Los Angeles, first “Ties That Bind” conference is held to explore future of the Nikkei community.
1998: In Los Angeles, Coalition Against Slavery and Trafficking is formed with the support of Bill Watanabe.
1999: In Los Angeles, performance artists who are activists – including Traci Kato Kiriyama – create Tuesday Night Project.
1999: In Los Angeles, young Asian American activists launch new Gidra newsmagazine, modeled on the original Asian American Movement newspaper from thirty years ago.
1999: Asian American activists organize in support of scientist Wen Ho Lee who is charged by the U.S. Department of Energy with 59 felony counts relating to violations of “national security” protocols at Los Alamos weapons lab. He is held in solitary confinement for nine months. A federal judge eventually throws out 58 of the felony counts. Community organizing continues to gain a Presidential Pardon for Dr. Lee.
2000: In Los Angeles, activist-artist Tony Osumi unveils mural “Aloha to the Neighborhood” on (former) Aloha Grocery store in Culver City.
2000: Rev. Michael Yasutake’s resolution titled “Rehearing for (political prisoner) Mumia Abu-Jamal on Death Row” is adopted by the General Convention of the Episcopal.
2001: In Los Angeles, one week following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, NCRR activists organize a candlelight vigil with other community groups in Little Tokyo to express solidarity with Arab American, Muslim, and South Asian communities.
2001: In Philadelphia, Asian American activists found the first Chinatown “freedom school.”
2001: In Los Angeles, a delegation of 17 Asian Americans, including NCRR members, returns from visit to Cuba where they met with Japanese Cubans. The delegation resulted from the efforts of Judy Ota who had learned about the 100-year history of Japanese Cubans from Francisco Miyasaka, President of the Cuban Japanese Society, while she visited Cuba with her daughter a couple of years ago.
2001: NCRR leaders Kathy Masaoka and Ayako Hagihara travel to Tokyo to express solidarity with the Hanaoka Support Committee, which announces a settlement agreement between eight Chinese former mine workers and Kajima Corporation for atrocities suffered during the Pacific War.
2002: In Seattle, Japanese Americans help sponsor Hate Free Zone forum to speak out against hate crimes against Arab Americans, South Asian immigrants, and other immigrants
2002: In Los Angeles, NCRR member Wilbur Sato speaks at the “Not in My Name, Mr. President” anti-war rally.
2002: Federal Judge Robert Takasugi dismisses several indictments against Iranian and Iranian American defendants, alleged to be members of a terrorist cell attempting to overthrow the Iranian government. The defendants challenged the government’s unilateral characterization of the group as a terrorist organization.
2003: In conjunction with the Ties That Bind conference, George Kiriyama, Iku Kiriyama, Chris Aihara, Amy Phillips and Jeff Murakami organize Camp Musubi to convey aspects of the Japanese American culture and community to middle school youth.
2004: In Los Angeles, activist-artist Tony Osumi and nearly 500 volunteers create mural in Little Tokyo called “Home Is Little Tokyo.”
2004: In Los Angeles, NCRR leaders Kathy Masaoka and Kei Nagao help organize “Communities Under Siege, Keeping the Faith,” an interfaith gathering of 200 Buddhists, Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other faiths.
2005: In Los Angeles and other cities, NCRR activists support Chinese American Muslim Captain James Yee who is racially profiled as a “Chinese Taliban” and initially accused of spying during his time as the U.S. military’s first Muslim chaplain at Guantanamo prison.
2005: In Los Angeles, Nikkei activists form J-town Voice.
2005: In Garden Grove in Orange County, student activist Kurt Isobe is arrested for demonstrating against the anti-immigrant Minuteman Project and charged with felonies by police. NCRR joins community mobilization demanding that the charges be dropped, and in 2006 the Orange County District Attorney dismisses the charges.
2005: Activist Yuri Kochiyama is nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the “1,000 Women for the Nobel Peace Prize 2005” project.
2006: Across the U.S., young Asian American activists join in massive marches and school walk-outs in defense of immigrant rights.
2006-2007: In Los Angeles, Asian American Vietnam Veterans Organization (AAVVO) and NCRR organize actions in support of Lt. Ehren Watada and his refusal to deploy to Iraq as an illegal and unjust war.
2008: In Los Angeles, J-town Voice organizes a rally in Little Tokyo focusing on corporate accountability of 3D Investments and American Commercial Equities (ACE), owners of the Kyoto Grand Hotel and Japanese Village Plaza and the importance of preserving Little Tokyo’s community institutions, small businesses and traditions.
2008: Young Asian Americans mobilize to help elect President Barack Obama.
2008: Asian American and Pacific Islander community groups organize against California Proposition 8 and form API Equality-LA, a coalition of organizations and individuals working to build support for equal marriage rights and fair treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.
2008: In Los Angeles, Southern California Library honors Kibei Okinawan activist-author Dick Jiro Kobashigawa on its Wall of Honor for his seven decades of activism. He joins other Nisei activists honored on the library’s wall: Arthur Takei, Sue Kunitomi Embrey, James Omura, and Flora Murai.
2008: In Los Angeles, a coalition of intergenerational Japanese American activists working through Little Tokyo Service Center gain approval from the Los Angeles City Council of a memorandum of understanding to build a recreation center in Little Tokyo.
2009: JACL Pacific Southwest District, NCRR, and Council on American Islamic Relations of Los Angeles organize Bridging Communities Program for Japanese American and Muslim American high school youth.
2010: Asian American activists join protests against Arizona’s racist anti-immigrant law and attacks on ethnic studies.
2010: In Los Angeles, an administrator’s announcement at California State University, Los Angeles, of “temporary suspension” of Asian and Asian American Studies program on campus prompts concerns and protests from students, community groups, and state public officials.
2011: State of California officially observes Fred Korematsu Day each January 30.
2011: In Los Angeles, performance activist Traci Kato Kiriyama launches her web-based “Generations of War and Peace” project with an initial focus on leaders of Asian American Vietnam Veterans Organization, including Nick Nagatani, Mike Nakayama, and Art Ishii, who became community activists following the war.
2011: Asian American activists criticize East Coast Asian American Student Union’s (ECAASU) conference for being funded partly by U.S. military branches, for holding workshops promoting the U.S. military, and for the ECAASU governing board’s efforts to disassociate itself from members and conference speakers who raise these concerns.
2011: In Los Angeles, an intergenerational planning committee plans a conference to bring together four generations of Japanese American activists to take action around critical community issues.
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